October 1, 2018

Glossary

Glossary

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There are 66 names in this directory beginning with the letter C.
Cafeteria Employee Benefit Plan
A plan offering a variety of benefit options from which employees may choose, such as health insurance, life insurance, and retirement benefits.

Canceled Check
A check that has cleared the bank and is returned to the depositor with his monthly statement.

Capital (or Equity)
Interest of the owner in the business that is the difference between Assets & Liabilities. Also called Equity or Net worth. In a corporation, capital represents the stockholders' equity.

Capital Asset
Assets, of either a tangible or intangible nature, owned or held by a business which are expected to be used or held over several fiscal periods.

Capital Gain / Loss
Profit or gain realized from the sale or exchange of a capital asset. The amount is determined by calculating the difference between an asset's purchase and sale price.

Capital Gains Distribution
A payment to shareholders of profits realized on the sale of an investment company's securities.

Capital Gains Tax
A tax on profits from the sale of securities or other assets.

Capital Loss
A decrease in the value of an investment or capital asset from its purchase price.

Capital Stock
See Stock and Authorized stock.

CAPS
A limit on how much the interest rate can change either at each adjustment or during the life of the mortgage, e.g., "2/6" equates to 2% per year and 6% over life of loan.

Cash Advance
An instant loan against a line of credit. Interest is usually charged on cash advances from the date the advance is made until it is repaid. Issuers may also charge transaction fees.

Cash Basis
An accounting method that counts cash inflows or outflows when they are actually expended or received (as opposed to accrual basis).

Cash Budget
A budget used to quantify an immediate short-term cash flow.

Cash Flow
The aggregate of all cash inflows and outflows. This can be expressed as positive or negative cash flow.

Cash Management
The process of channeling cash into expenditures that enhance productivity.

Cash Surrender Value
The amount the policy-owner receives when voluntarily terminating a cash value life insurance or annuity contract before its maturity or before the insured event occurs.

Casualty Loss
Sudden and unexpected losses due to damage, destruction, fire or theft, for which one can be compensated by insurance contracts.

Certificate of Authority
A document issued by the proper state authority to a foreign corporation granting the corporation the right to do business in that state.

Certificate of Deposit (CD)
An agreement with a commercial bank in which funds are deposited at a fixed interest rate for a specified period of time. CDs are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) up to $250,000. There may be a penalty if funds are withdrawn before the CD reaches maturity.

Certified Public Accountant (CPA)
A professional accountant who has received certification to practice accounting from a state board of examination and may also be a member of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants or other various state CPA organizations.

Chapter 11
A debtor (business, individual, or partnership) is declared bankrupt but is allowed reorganization to attempt debt repayment. Creditor approval is required. A separate taxable entity is created.

Chapter 13
A debtor (individual or sole proprietor) is declared bankrupt but is allowed to retain estate related assets and restructure debt obligations for eventual payment. No creditor approval is required.

Chapter 7
A debtor (individual) is declared bankrupt, and a court-appointed trustee initiates a liquidation process and a discharge of all eligible debts. The debtor has no financial sources to attempt a reorganization. A separate taxable entity is created.

Check
A written, signed, and dated instrument that allows for the transfer of money from a bank account to a payee.

Check Register
A form of cash payments journal which is used to record deposits and expenditures in and out of a bank account.

Claim
A request for payment from an insurance policy.

Claims-Paying-Ability Rating
An assessment of an insurance company's ability to pay claims.

Close Corporation or Closely Held Corporation
A close corporation is a corporation that possesses the following traits: a small number of shareholders, no ready market for the corporation's stock and substantial participation by the majority shareholders in the management of the corporation. Some states have close corporation statutes.

Closing
The end of a trading session or the process of transferring real estate from a seller to a buyer.

Closing Costs
Costs involved in transferring real estate from a seller to a buyer, over and above the price of the property. These can include charges for loan origination, discount points, appraisal, property survey, title search, title insurance, deed filing, credit reports, taxes, and legal services. Closing costs do not include points or the cost of private mortgage insurance (PMI).

Cloud on Title
A claim, lien, or right on real estate that requires a quitclaim deed to resolve the potential hindrance before the title can be transferred.

Combined Financial Statement
A side-by-side accounting of balance and net worth statements for several affiliated business enterprises.

Commercial Loan
A loan intended for short-term financing of a business, based on the creditworthiness of the business or owner and the prime lending rate.

Commercial Paper
An unsecured, short-term debt instrument used by corporations with high-quality debt ratings to fund short-term liabilities. Generally considered a safe investment.

Commission
The fee charged by an agent or broker for facilitating a transaction.

Commitment
A written agreement specifying the terms and conditions of a mortgage.

Common Stock
A security that represents partial ownership or equity in a corporation. Holders of common stock are entitled to participate in the company's stockholder meetings and vote for the board of directors.

Compound Interest
Interest calculated on both the principal amount invested and the previously accumulated unpaid interest.

Compounding
A process in which income and gains on an investment are reinvested to grow further. When you earn compound interest, you earn interest on both the principal amount and the accumulated interest as it is earned.

Consignee
A person who receives goods that belong to someone else for future sale or other purpose. Although consignees are not the owners of the goods, they are accountable for them.

Consignment
Goods that are in the hands of someone other than the owner for future sale or other purpose.

Consignor
The owner of goods that are in another person's hands for future sale or other purpose.

Consolidated Financial Statements
Financial statements that show the results of all operations under the parent company's control, including those of any subsidiaries.

Construction Loan Note
A short-term obligation used to fund a construction project. In most cases, the issuers, such as a city government, will repay the note obligation by issuing a long-term bond.

Contingent Beneficiary
A secondary beneficiary who receives insurance benefits if the primary beneficiary revokes his or her status, is ineligible, or is deceased.

Contingent Liability
An obligation to pay if certain future events occur. This can also refer to a defined obligation for which the chances of payment are minimal.

Controlling Interest
Direct or indirect ownership of voting shares sufficient to elect the majority of the board of directors of a corporation.

Convertible Term Insurance
An insurance policy that allows the policyholder to convert the face amount of coverage in term insurance to an identical amount of whole life insurance.

Corporate Bond
A debt security issued by a corporation that obligates the issuer to pay interest periodically and repay the principal at maturity. Corporate bonds often have higher interest rates than government bonds due to possible default risk.

Corporate Record Book
Maintaining the proper records is very important to assure limited liability to corporate shareholders. The corporation should have a record book that contains a copy of the articles of incorporation, bylaws, initial and subsequent minutes of directors and shareholders meetings and a stock register.

Corporation
A group of people acting jointly for business and tax purposes who are able to incur debt and realize profit without immediate legal or taxable liabilities. A corporate entity allows its owners to attract outside capital by selling shares of ownership, protects the owners from liability beyond their investment outlay, provides for continuity of operations beyond the lives of the current owners and allows changes in ownership through the transfer of shares.

Correction
A reverse movement in the price of a stock, bond, commodity, or index that brings it more in line with its underlying fundamental value.

Cosigner
An individual who signs a loan or credit card agreement along with the principal applicant and assumes responsibility for the outstanding balance if the applicant defaults.

Covenant not to Compete
A clause in a contract that obligates one party to refrain from performing professional or business activities similar to those of the other party.

Coverdell Education Savings Account (Coverdell ESA)
A federal program that allows parents to accumulate tax-free savings for a child's college education, formerly called the Education IRA.

Credit (1)
Legal obligation to make repayment at a later date for goods, services or money obtained through the extension of credit, or a promise to pay in the future. The cost of credit is usually referred to as a finance charge, interest or time-price differential

Credit (2)
Entry recording an increase to a liability or owner's equity or revenue, or a reduction to an asset or expense. Credits are recorded in the right hand column of an account or a two-column book. Opposite of debit.

Credit Bureau
Clearinghouse of consumer credit information used by businesses to determine the credit

Credit History
A record of how a party has paid past debts.

Credit Line
A revolving agreement that allows a person to borrow any amount up to a preapproved limit for purchases or cash advances. When the outstanding balance is paid off, credit again becomes available to fund new purchases or cash advances.

Credit Note
Issued by a seller to a purchaser to record the reduction of a bill because of an allowance, return or cancellation. Opposite of an invoice.

Credit Rating
A formal assessment of an individual's or a corporation's ability to handle credit, based on the history of borrowing and repayment, as well as the availability of assets and the extent of liabilities.

Credits
If you have a store credit, you can use the credit to purchase merchandise free of charge. If you have a tax credit, your taxes are reduced by the amount of your credit. You can get tax credits for purposes such as child care expenses and the earned income credit for low-income taxpayers.

Cumulative Voting
Cumulative voting allows shareholders to aggregate their votes in favor of fewer candidates than there are slots available. This method of voting is intended to create adequate representation for minority shareholders.

Current Asset
Unrestricted cash, or any other asset that is expected to be converted into cash or consumed in the production of income within a year.

Current Liability
Liability expected to be liquidated in a year.