October 1, 2018

Glossary

Glossary

All | # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z
There are 56 names in this directory beginning with the letter P.
Paid in Capital Requirements
A few states require corporations to have a specified amount of paid-in capital prior to starting business. These states include CT, DC, SD and TX and require that the company have $1,000 in paid-in capital before starting business.

Paid-Up Additions
Additional life insurance coverage. These are typically purchased with policy dividends.

Par Value
The face value of a stock or bond when issued, which may bear little relationship to the security's current market value.

Par-Value
The stated minimum value of a share stock. Stock must be sold for at least this value or the owner of the stock can face liability. With low par value stock or no par value stock this liability is minimized.

Parent Company
A corporation that directly or indirectly owns a controlling interest in another corporation. See Subsidiary.

Partnership
A contractual association between individuals who share in the management and profitability of a business venture.

Pass-Through Taxation
Income to the entity is not taxed. Instead the income is "passed through" to the individual shareholders or interest holders. S corporations, Partnerships and LLCs are pass-through taxation entities.

Past Due
A payment that has not been received by the end of the lender's grace period. Creditors may assess late fees for past due payments or report the account holder to a credit reporting agency.

Patent
An official license granted by the Patent Office that gives an individual or business the rights to the production or sale of a specific invention, process, or design for a specified period of time.

Payable
An obligation to pay a sum at a future date.

Payroll
A record of wages or salaries paid or payable. The actual wages and salaries paid during a given period.

Payroll Taxes
There are two main forms of payroll taxes. One is in the form of withholding and the other is paid directly by the employer. In the first case employers deduct a certain amount from employee paychecks to pay for taxes. In the second, employers pay a tax based on the number of employees and how much they are paid. This tax money funds many finance specific programs, including social security, health care and worker's disability.

Pension
Arrangement whereby an employer agrees to provide benefits to retired employees. A pension is paid out in a series of regular payments or a lump sum of money to retired employees or their beneficiaries.

Permanent Life Insurance
A life insurance policy that does not expire and combines a death benefit with a savings portion that the insured can borrow against or withdraw for cash needs. The two main types of permanent life policies are whole life and universal life.

Personal Income Tax
Everyone pays a tax on his or her yearly total amount of taxable income. The personal income tax is not a tax on the taxpayer's total income as the taxpayer can take deductions. Deductions are subtracted first from the taxpayer's income and then he or she pays the tax on the remaining amount.

PITI
The four components of a mortgage payment: principal, interest, property taxes and insurance.

Plan Administrator
An individual who administers government regulations and procedures for an employee benefit program and confirms that all participating employees receive annual reports.

Plan Sponsor
An employer who establishes and perpetuates a qualified employee benefit pension plan.

Points
A measure that quantifies the initial fee charged by a mortgage lender, with each point being equal to 1% of the total loan principal. For example, on a $100,000 mortgage, four points would cost a borrower $4,000.

Policy
A legal document that states the terms of an insurance contract, or the contract itself.

Policy Dividend
A refund that reflects the difference between the life insurance premium charged and the insurer's actual cost of providing coverage.

Policy Exclusion
An item specifically not covered by an insurance policy.

Policy Loan
A loan from an insurance company against the cash surrender value of a life insurance policy.

Policy Reserves
The funds that insurers are required to hold in order to cover all policy obligations.

Policy Rider
A provision that can be added to an insurance policy at an additional cost to increase or limit the benefits of the policy.

Policyholder
The person or entity that owns an insurance policy.

Portability
An employee's ability to retain his or her benefits after employment ceases.

Portfolio
The combined security holdings of an investor or mutual fund.

Posting
Process whereby transactions are transferred from a journal to a general ledger or subsidiary ledger.

Power of Attorney
A legal document that gives one person the power to perform specified acts or make decisions on behalf of another person, should that person become incapacitated.

Preemptive Rights
Rights delineated in the articles of incorporation granting shareholders the first opportunity to buy a new issue of stock in proportion to their current equity. The shareholder has the right to buy the new issue of stock, but is not required to make the purchase. If the shareholder elects not to exercise this right, the shares can be sold on the open market.

Preferred Stock
A security representing partial ownership or equity in a corporation. Preferred stock does not give the stockholder voting rights, but takes precedence in claims against the company's profits and assets.

Premature or Early Distributions
Withdrawals from qualified retirement plans before the age of 59½.

Premium
A periodic payment for an insurance policy.

Premium Loan
A loan made from an insurance policy to cover premiums.

Prepaid
An asset created by payment for economic benefits that do not expire until a later time. As the benefit expires, the asset becomes an expense. Such assets include prepaid rent and prepaid insurance.

Prepayment
Repaying installment credit before it is due or paying off a loan before its maturity date.

Prepayment Penalty
On a loan without a prepayment clause, the fee a borrower pays for repaying the loan before it is due.

Present Value
The amount that a future sum of money is worth today, given a specified rate of return.

Price/Earnings Ratio (P/E)
A stock's price divided by its earnings per share; this ratio tells investors how much they are paying for a company's current earnings.

Primary Beneficiary
The named beneficiary who receives the proceeds of an insurance policy or annuity contract upon the death of the insured or annuitant.

Prime Rate
A standardized short-term borrowing rate established by the Federal Reserve Board.

Principal
The original amount of money invested in a security, the face value of a bond, or the remaining amount owed on a loan, separate from interest. "Principal" can also refer to the owner of a private company or the main party in a financial transaction.

Private Letter Ruling
The Internal Revenue Service's interpretation of a tax situation in light of a particular individual's circumstances. Private letter rulings are nonbinding and do not set precedent for other cases.

Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI)
Insurance that protects the lender in case of default on a mortgage.

Professional Corporation
A corporation that is organized for the purpose of engaging in a learned profession such as law, medicine or architecture. Professional corporations must file articles of incorporation with the state which meet the state's requirements for professional corporations.

Profit
The excess of total revenue over total expenses for a period of time.

Profit and Loss Statement
A statement that summarizes a company's revenues, costs and expenses incurred during a specific time period.

Profit-Sharing Plan
A defined contribution plan to which employers contribute a percentage of the company's profits, usually based on the employee's earnings.

Progressive Tax
A tax that takes a larger percentage of income from higher income groups than from lower income groups.

Prohibited Transaction
A transaction involving an IRA that is forbidden by the Internal Revenue Code, such as borrowing against an IRA, using an IRA as collateral or investing IRA funds in collectibles.

Property
Anything that has a value and is owned whether it is tangible, intangible, personal, public or common.

Property Tax
A tax imposed upon the owner of real property. This type of tax is also known as a millage tax.

Proportional Tax
Proportional taxes take the same percentage of income from all groups. This type of tax is not currently in use.

Prospectus
An official document that must be provided by the issuer to potential purchasers of a new security. A prospectus will contain reports on the financial status of the issuer and the specifics of the issue itself.

Proxy
If a shareholder can not attend a meeting, the shareholder is allowed to vote by proxy. A proxy grants another individual the power to vote on their behalf.